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Battery Liquid Cooling System – How Does It Work?


Battery liquid cooling system is a very important one. It is a core component of high-voltage power equipment and is used to ensure battery performance and avoid battery thermal runaway. The battery liquid cooling system drives the coolant to circulate in the system through the water pump, and utilizes the heat exchange device to transfer the heat generated by the battery to the coolant, and then emits the heat to the atmosphere through the radiator, thus realizing the cooling of the power battery. I will describe how it works in detail below.

Battery Liquid Cooling System

Battery Liquid Cooling System

I'm worried some people don't understand this yet, so I'll explain it briefly. First of all batteries, whether charging or discharging, are accompanied by electron movement, which generates heat. This is an unavoidable phenomenon. The battery cooling system is the system that was created to deal with this heat. It must regulate the temperature of the battery pack to ensure that it is maintained within the appropriate temperature range. Otherwise, it will not only affect the performance and lifespan of the power battery pack but also trigger thermal runaway, leading to damage to electric equipment, explosions and other safety issues.

Battery Cooling System

Battery Cooling System for Electric Bus, Electric Truck, E-Heavy Equipment, Electric Boat, etc.

Nowadays, there are three main types of common battery cooling systems, air battery cooling, liquid battery cooling, and direct refrigerant cooling. In addition to these, there are also immersion battery cooling and so on. These others are still not commercially available, so they are out of the scope of discussion.

Different cooling methods work differently. Battery liquid cooling systems are the focus of this discussion. I will cover more about this EV battery cooling solution.

✔ Battery liquid cooling system

1, The main components of the battery liquid cooling system.

Electronic water pump: It is responsible for driving the coolant in the system to circulate in the pipeline and continuously cool down.

Liquid piping: It is responsible for providing a flow path for the coolant to contact and cool the power battery module.

Condenser: It is responsible for radiating the heat absorbed by the coolant to the atmosphere.

Heat Exchanger: Responsible for transferring the heat generated by the battery to the coolant.

Compressor: The TKT HVAC battery cooling system adds customized compressor components to further enhance the cooling capacity of the system.

battery cooling system

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2, Battery liquid cooling system working principle

When the power battery warms up and needs to be cooled, the power battery will exchange heat with the coolant through the cooling plate.

The coolant receiving heat is sent into the heat exchanger by the electronic water pump. Inside the heat exchanger, one side flows into the refrigerant, and the other side flows into the hot coolant, and both of them exchange heat in the heat exchanger.

The heat is carried away by the refrigerant and the cooler coolant flows out and back to the battery, creating a cycle;

The hotter refrigerant then dissipates the heat through a customized compressor and condenser, creating a cycle.

Battery cooling for large electric devices is easy with the dual cycle system.

For some cold countries, the power battery will need to be heated. We add an accessory - a PTC liquid heater. It works by first closing the cooling circuit and turning on the PTC liquid heater. The coolant is heated by the PTC and flows to the battery, where it is heated by the cooling plates.

3, Battery liquid cooling system advantages

Good cooling effect: Compared with air cooling, liquid cooling effect is better and more stable. It can completely solve the problem of power battery overheating.

Strong applicability: compared with refrigerant direct cooling and immersion cooling, it is more applicable. The requirements for the environment are not so harsh.

Strong controllability and high precision: the system collects temperature data in real-time and intelligently adjusts parameters such as coolant flow and condensing fan speed. This can achieve a balance between precise control of power battery temperature and energy saving.

BTMS system

✔ Air Cooling

Utilizing the temperature difference between the battery system's own temperature and the surrounding environment temperature, the temperature of the battery is lowered by the convective heat exchange of air. It is usually equipped with a certain number of fans to accelerate the exchange of heat.

The advantage of this kind of cooling is its simple structure and lower cost. The disadvantage is that the cooling effect is not satisfactory enough.

✔ Refrigerant Direct Cooling

The use of refrigerant as a heat exchange medium, the use of refrigerant in the gas-liquid phase change process absorbs a large amount of heat characteristics, to achieve rapid cooling.

The advantage of this cooling is a good cooling effect. The disadvantage is that the technology is complicated, the cost is high, and it can not be heated.

After understanding the various cooling methods above, you will find that the battery liquid cooling system is currently the most mature solution for electric vehicle battery cooling systems. This is especially true in scenarios that require high power output and long hours of operation, such as electric bus battery cooling system, electric truck battery cooling system, and electric heavy equipment battery cooling system.

TKT HVAC Busthermo - Battery Cooling System Manufacturer

TKT HVAC Busthermo has been designing and manufacturing battery liquid cooling systems for 10 years. Our products are technologically mature, cooling effective and fairly priced.

We have become partners of many world-renowned vehicle manufacturers such as BYD, TATA motors, Switch Mobility, etc.

Q: What coolant is used for battery cooling?
A: The common coolants used for battery cooling are water or glycol.

Q: Do EV batteries have cooling systems?
A: Of course there is, because electric cars have high energy batteries. For higher power, the instantaneous energy required is huge and therefore the heat generated will be huge.

Q: Why is battery cooling important?
A: I'll use cell phone batteries as an example to make it easier to understand. When you use your cell phone in the summer and the battery temperature rises, the phone will alarm and reduce performance to avoid the battery continuing to heat up. If it continues to heat up, it will cause the phone to shut down automatically. This is used to protect the phone from damage and explosion.
When you use your cell phone in the winter, you will notice that the battery lasts for a shorter period of time. This is because the battery activity drops.

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